Powerglide

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Page created by unknown. Additional info by ReaperHR and T.
New additions started May 9th 2007:
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Split Powerglide Torque Converter (similar in operation to Trimatic) showing the Engine driven Impeller (right), the output shaft Turbine (upper centre), the efficiency improving Stator (lower centre) and the other half of the cover (left). The Stator catches exhaust oil from the Turbine and forces it back into the Impeller. Click to Enlargen. Photo by nobody123.

==Powerglide:==
Nobody123's Shed. Contains How to Assemble a Powerglide.
The Powerglide is a 2 speed automatic gearbox using a hydraulic torque converter. It was used by General Motors from the 1950s to the 1970s. Holden used the powerglide to replace the Hydramatic and it was later superseded itself by the Turbo Hydramatic or Tri-matic after other manufacturers had already moved from 2 speed automatics to 3 speed automatics. Chevrolet continued to use powerglide gearboxes into the early 1970s on their Novas and Vegas and they are still used today in racing (drag and mud) due to the boxes strength. The powerglide boxes have a 6 cylinder and V8 version which are very similar with the 6 cylinder box using many of the exact components the V8 box used, making it a very solid and reliable box for a Holden 6.

Powerglide Automatic Gearbox. Click to Enlargen. Photo by 308-T.


308-T's Shed

===Specifications===

{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center"
|+Powerglides in Holdens
|-
! style="background:#efefef;" | Model
! style="background:#ffdead;" | Years
! style="background::#efefef;" | Engine
! style="background:#ffdead;" | Shifter
! style="background::#efefef;" | Part #
! style="background:#ffdead;" | Reverse
! style="background::#efefef;" | Low
! style="background:#ffdead;" | Drive
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | HD
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1965 - 1966
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 6
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Column
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 7420946
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | HR
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1966 - 1968
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 6
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Column
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 7420946
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | HK
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1968 - 1969
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 6
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Column
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 7420946
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 6
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Floor
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 7436786
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 307 V8
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | -
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 3924789
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | HT
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1969 - 1970
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 6
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Column
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 7420946
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 6
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Floor
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 7436786
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 307 V8
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | -
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 3924789
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 253 & 308 V8
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | -
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 2805133
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 350 V8
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | -
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 3968033
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | HG
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1970 - 1971
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 6
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Column
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 7420946
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 6
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Floor
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 7436786
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.82
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 253 & 308 V8
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Column
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 5258738
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" |
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 253 & 308 V8
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Floor
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 2805133
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 1.76
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct
| colspan="8" align="center" |
|}

===Maintenance===

If a major failure does occur the gearbox should be removed, disassembled and inspected, the converter may also need to be replaced. Otherwise the powerglide box does not need periodical transmission fluid changes although to keep the fluid in the best possible condition the use of a transmission cooler should be used.

Powerglide Flex Plate. Click to Enlargen. Photo by 308-T.


The powerglide transmission uses a dipstick similar to the standard engine dipstick (but far longer) and it is a good habit to keep an eye on fluid level and colour, if the colour begins to darken or smells burnt then it should be dropped out of the box and new fluid used to refill.

====Checking Fluid Level====

Unlike the engine where the fluid level is checked at rest the powerglide transmission fluid level needs to be checked after the vehicle is warmed up. Generally you can do this after returning from a drive or if you want to check the fluid then run the car at idle until normal operating temperature is reached (say around 82 degrees celcius on your temperature gauge).

1. Warm up the engine.

2. Shift the selector through all the gears finally stopping again in park.

3. Remove and clean the dipstick with a rag.

3. Switch off the engine and insert the transmission dipstick.

4. Withdraw the dipstick and check the fluid level.

5. Add fluid through the dipstick tube and repeat steps as required until fluid reaches the full mark. DO NOT overfill.

=====Signs of Incorrect Fluid Level=====

The transmission should be kept at the full mark on the dipstick and checked periodically, if for some reason though fluid does escape from the box the following signs may be seen.

1. The vehicle won't move even though gears are selected.

2. Slipping around corners.

3. Slow changes between gears (a prolonged gap between the two gears).

4. Gearbox changing gears at incorrect times (too early, too late).

5. Gearbox overheating.

If the gearbox is slipping but fluid is already at or very close to the full mark it may just be the age of the gearbox components causing problems, running a little extra fluid can sometimes fix this issue.

====Oil Cooler====
=====Flushing the Oil Cooler=====

When a fault has occurred with the transmission as with any geared mechanical device it should be drained and cleaned of any metal fragments or other materials which may have been deposited into the fluid. In the case of the Powerglide box these particles may gather in the oil cooler. To remedy this the oil cooler and lines should be flushed to remove any fragments or debris before the gearbox is used again. To do this simply add a few litres of extra automatic transmission fluid to the box, disconnect the exiting oil cooling line at the opposite end from the box and allow the car to idle. Automatic transmission fluid should flow from the line, make sure to run the fluid until you have caught as many extra litres as you added, if the fluid is still contaminated then repeat. If the fluid doesn't flow then check for crushed lines, failing that the cooler unit may be the issue and if so the radiator will need to be replaced (if it a bottom radiator unit). Compressed air can be used to blow out the cooler and lines but should be done with care.

=====Replacing the Oil Cooler (Radiator Type)=====

If a fault is detected with the oil cooler itself you can try clearing it with a reverse flush of compressed air. Failing that the oil cooler cannot be replaced without replacing the whole radiator.

====Testing the Transmission====

When testing the transmission the engine should be at normal operating temperature, you may also need a tachometer connected to be able to accurately gauge engine revs where required.

=====Line Pressure=====

Testing line pressure should be done with the brake pedal applied and the gearbox in park, the test should also not be run for any more than a few minutes to avoid damaging the box. Apply a pressure gauge to the pressure port, a stock powerglide should have a line pressure of between 140 and 150 PSI. Racing powerglide boxes can have line pressure of 200 PSI and above.

{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center"
|-
! style="background:#efefef;" | Level
! style="background:#ffdead;" | Possible Cause
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Too low (less than 140 PSI)
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Low pressure may be caused by sticking valves (pressure regulator, modifier pressure) or leakage from the control valve body, case or the pump.
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Too high (greater than 150 PSI)
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Pressures above 200 PSI may indicate a racing box rather than a stock box. Otherwise it may be caused by a pressure regulator fault.
| colspan="3" align="center" |
|}

=====Stall Speed=====

The stock 6 cylinder powerglide box will have a stall speed of approximately 1500 rpm, naturally if it is a race modified or stall kitted box this could be far different. A stall speed test should be done by a professional in a controlled environment and should be performed in the driven range i.e. Drive, Low and Reverse gears. To test the stall speed hold the throttle open in the gear for around 5 seconds, allow 3 or 4 times that period for the transmission to cool down afterward by placing it in Neutral and allowing the engine to idle.

{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center"
|-
! style="background:#efefef;" | Stall Speed
! style="background:#ffdead;" | Possible Cause
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Too low (around 1100 to 1200 rpm)
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Confirm the engine is tuned correctly, otherwise this is an indication of convertor stator clutch problems.


{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center"
|-
! style="background:#efefef;" | Description
! style="background:#ffdead;" | Convertor Stator Clutch
! style="background:#efefef;" | Remedy
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Cruises ok but low acceleration
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Slipping
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Various, replace converter or increase pressure
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Seems to pull back at cruise and acceleration very poor
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Possibly installed backwards
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Reinstall or replace with one known to work
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Acceleration in Drive over 30mph and low top speed, transmission overheating
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Locked engaged
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Replace torque converter
| colspan="3" align="center" |
|}
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Too high (greater than 1500 rpm)
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | If the stall speed is above 1500 rpm it may indicate that the convertor is not getting the required fluid or that it is slipping.

{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="left"
|-
! style="background:#efefef;" | Description
! style="background:#ffdead;" | Problem
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Excessive rpm in all driven gears
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Direct clutch or rear clutch slipping
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Excessive rpm in Drive only
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | One way clutch slipping
| colspan="10" align="left" |
|}
| colspan="3" align="center" |
|}




=====Shift Points=====

{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="left"
|-
! style="background:#efefef;" | Throttle
! style="background:#ffdead;" | Upshift M.P.H
! style="background::#efefef;" | Downshift M.P.H
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Closed
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 11.5 - 16
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 10 - 15
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Detent touch
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 37 - 51
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 21 - 36
|-
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | Full
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 46 - 58
| style="border-bottom:3px solid grey;" | 43 - 55
| colspan="3" align="center" |
|}

====Badges:====
Powerglide Badge (far right, under the Holden badge) on a 186 HR Sedan. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Barry Brook.


===Terms:===

Terms
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