Difference between revisions of "Carburettor Ice"

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<p>Original submission by T Mar 5 2006 </p><p>[http://www.oldholden.com/possible/index.php/General_information#Fuel_Systems Back to Fuel System Index] </p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:Sd_img_ch_ice.jpg|thumb|Carburettor Ice in a Rotax Engine. Photo by Dave Loveman of Ultralight News.]]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>==What is Carburettor Ice?:== </p><p>Just as the Freezer section of a Refrigerator shows evidence of Water Vapour from the air freezing, Fuel Systems can suffer similarly. </p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:Sd_img_ch_noice.jpg|thumb|After Carburettor Heat has been applied. Photo by Dave Loveman of Ultralight News.]]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:Carby_0_previewB.jpg|thumb|Water droplets forming on the outside of a Grey Motor Carburettor caused by a failed Hot Spot. There can be just as much liquid condensing on the inside of the Carburettor. With the Fuel acting as a refrigerant ice is assured. Photo by Stock EJ.]] </p><p>[http://www.ultralightnews.ca/bing/images/sd_img_ch_ice.jpg Carburettor Ice in a Rotax Engine.]&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:Icing_0.preview.jpeg|thumb|Fuel Supply Icing on a BSA Motorcycle. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Jacks.]]</p><p>Water droplets appear in Fuel Tanks as a result of the water vapour in the air being condensed by the cooling effect of the Fuel in the Tank. Manufacturers provide Carburettor Cars with a means of heating the Carburettor to prevent the buildup of Carburettor Ice. Engines without Carburettor Heat are exposed to the possibility of rough running followed by Engine stoppage as in the following images.</p><p>[http://oldholden.com/?q=node/24069 Carburettor Ice Thread; Jammed Hot Spot Flap] </p><p>[http://www.karting1.co.uk/jetting-karting.htm Carburettor Ice in Karts] </p><p>[http://www.rjma.com/flight/airwaves/vol2-53.jpg Carburettor Ice Diagram] </p><p>[http://www.paragonair.com/public/docs/AdvCircs/AC00-06A_AvWx/_00-6A_Fig095_10.jpg Carburettor Ice Diagram] [http://www.casa.gov.au/fsa/2001/jul/28-31.pdf Carburettor Ice Information] </p><p>[http://gallery.oldholden.com/stock+EJ/bits/car+025.jpg.html Stock-EJ's Shed has Images of Grey Motor Manifolds]</p><p>===Carburettor Heat and the Hot Spot:=== </p><p>In Old Holdens, Carburettor Heat may be provided from a Flap Vane built into the Exhaust Manifold or a Coolant Source that allows hot Coolant to flow through the Inlet Manifold. Not only does this heat aid in Fuel Vapourisation, but it guards against Carburettor Ice. Carburettor Ice forms inside the carburettor of a running Engine when the humidity of the day is high, that is there is a lot of Water Vapour in the air. As the Fuel leaving the Main Jet is converted into Fuel Vapour, its temperature drops. The drop in temperature is sufficient to cause any incoming Water Vapour to form Ice Crystals over the Main Jet and Throttle Butterfly. Eventually the Ice buildup becomes so great that it will stop the Engine. You see Top Fuellers getting Alcohol sprayed on their intake Butterflies for the same reason. The Alcohol prevents Ice buildup. </p><p>===Carburettor Ice Duration:=== </p>Carburettor Ice doesn't stick around very long after the Engine has stopped. It's usually there just long enough to wreak havoc. Evidence of its presence will have to be collected rapidly because the Engine's heat will begin to make it melt and the absence of vapourising Fuel will remove its prime cause. It's for the above reasons that it has been such an evasive cause of Engine stoppage.&nbsp;&nbsp; <table border="0" align="center"><tbody><tr><td>&nbsp; <p>[[Image:Bedford1.jpg|thumb|173 Engine in a CF Bedford. The disconnected coolant connections on the Inlet Manifold caused gagging and carburettor ice. Photo by John Abbott.]]</p></td><td>&nbsp;[[Image:Bedford0.jpg|thumb|173 Engine in a CF Bedford. The disconnected coolant connections on the Inlet Manifold caused gagging and carburettor ice. Photo by John Abbott.]] </td><td>&nbsp;[[Image:100_0766.jpg|thumb|Note that the coolant connections are disconnected from the inlet manifold. Image by Tim. Click to Enlargen.]] </td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp; <p>[[Image:Trev_s_Old_Engine_09.jpg|thumb|Holden 161 Engine with Water Heated Inlet Manifold. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Trev PooBaa .]]&nbsp;&nbsp;</p></td><td>&nbsp;[[Image:TimMarkSherroB.jpg|thumb| Grey Motor showing the Hot Spot Flap Vane Balance weight under the carb and at the top of the Engine Pipe.&nbsp;Check to see that this is free to rotate when the engine is cold. Check to see that it moves from the cold to hot position after the Engine is up to temperature. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Sherro.]]&nbsp;&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp; <p>[[Image:P8170101S.JPG|thumb|Hot Spot Flap Vane Balance Weight on a 202 UC.&nbsp;&nbsp;It should be free to rotate when cold and should move from the cold to the hot position when the Engine has warmed up. Click to Enlargen. Photo by T.]]&nbsp;&nbsp;</p></td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;[[Image:Carby_0.preview.jpeg|thumb| Click to enlargen. Photo by Stock EJ.]] </td><td><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Image:Car_020.jpg|thumb| Hot Spot on a 138 Grey Motor. Click to enlargen. Photo by Stock EJ.]] </p><p>&nbsp;</p></td><td><p>&nbsp;[[Image:Car_025.jpg|thumb| Hot Spot Flap Vane in the Hot Position on a 138 Grey Motor. Click to enlargen. Photo by Stock EJ.]]&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p></td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;[[Image:DSC01018.JPG|thumb| Cutaway view of the Coolant Heating Jacket around the Inlet Manifold. Click to enlargen. Photo by Jacks.]] </td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>===Fuel Injected Engines:=== </p><p>Fuel Injected Engines do not suffer from ice because the Fuel leaving the Injectors does not drop in temperature. Also, the fuel is introduced to the air downstream of the throttle butterfly in contrast to a carburettor where the fuel enters the air upstream of it. </p><p>===Carburettor Heat:=== </p><p>In Aviation, all Carburettor equipped aircraft have a control on the Cockpit Dashboard called Carburettor Heat. In the event of Carburettor Ice forming, the Pilot can activate this control and cause exhaust heated air to be forced down the Carburettor intake to blow any ice away. Carburettor Ice causes a number of Forced Landings in Aircraft every year sometimes because the symptoms of a dying Engine are recognised too late and sometimes because particular Engines are very unforgiving of Carburettor Ice and simply quit too rapidly for the Pilot to be able to take action.&nbsp;</p><table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" width="126" style="border-collapse: collapse; width: 95pt"><tbody><tr height="17" style="height: 12.75pt">  <td width="126" height="17" style="height: 12.75pt; width: 95pt">[http://mba-essay.org/  mba essay]</td></tr></tbody></table><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:031220101628.jpg|thumb|186 Engine in HT Holden with Extractors and Coolant Heated Inlet Manifold. Photo by HT Holden Suzie. Click to Enlargen.]]</p><p>[[Image:031220101627.jpg|thumb|186 Engine in HT Holden with Extractors and Coolant Heated Inlet Manifold. Photo by HT Holden Suzie. Click to Enlargen.]]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>===Videos:===</p><p>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zMg6EWKZos&amp;feature=related Carburettor Ice] </p><p>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HvIERR60_Y YouTube Video ]</p><p>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZG_sdWuydU&amp;NR=1 VMax Carburettor Ice Part 1]</p><p>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBjZHl7HscA&amp;feature=related VMax Carburettor Ice Part 2] </p><p>===Links:===</p><p>[http://gallery.oldholden.com/HT+Holden+Ute/ HT Holden Suzie's Shed] </p><p>[http://images.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ultralightnews.ca/bing/images/sd_img_ch_ice.jpg&amp;imgrefurl=http://www.ultralightnews.ca/bing/carbheater.html&amp;h=320&amp;w=240&amp;sz=12&amp;hl=en&amp;start=9&amp;um=1&amp;tbnid=0OjF1oUp8fdg4M:&amp;tbnh=118&amp;tbnw=89&amp;prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcarburettor%2Bice%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Ultra Light News Image and Background.]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[http://oldholden.com/node/45696 Thread 1]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><a href="http://www.ultralightnews.com/">http://www.ultralightnews.com</a></p><p><a href="http://www.ultralightnews.ca/">http://www.ultralightnews.ca</a></p><p><a href="http://www.ultralightflyer.com/">http://www.ultralightflyer.com</a></p><p><a href="http://www.lightsportaircraft.ca/">http://www.lightsportaircraft.ca</a></p><p>===Terms:===[http://holdenpaedia.oldholden.com/Terms Terms]</p><p>[http://www.oldholden.com/possible/index.php/General_information#Fuel_Systems Back to Fuel System Index] </p><p>[[Category: Fuel System]] </p>
+
<p>Original submission by T Mar 5 2006 </p><p>[http://www.oldholden.com/possible/index.php/General_information#Fuel_Systems Back to Fuel System Index] </p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:Sd_img_ch_ice.jpg|thumb|Carburettor Ice in a Rotax Engine. Photo by Dave Loveman of Ultralight News.]]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>==What is Carburettor Ice?:== </p><p>Just as the Freezer section of a Refrigerator shows evidence of Water Vapour from the air freezing, Fuel Systems can suffer similarly. </p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:Sd_img_ch_noice.jpg|thumb|After Carburettor Heat has been applied. Photo by Dave Loveman of Ultralight News.]]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:Carby_0_previewB.jpg|thumb|Water droplets forming on the outside of a Grey Motor Carburettor caused by a failed Hot Spot. There can be just as much liquid condensing on the inside of the Carburettor. With the Fuel acting as a refrigerant ice is assured. Photo by Stock EJ.]] </p><p>[http://www.ultralightnews.ca/bing/images/sd_img_ch_ice.jpg Carburettor Ice in a Rotax Engine.]&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:Icing_0.preview.jpeg|thumb|Fuel Supply Icing on a BSA Motorcycle. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Jacks.]]</p><p>Water droplets appear in Fuel Tanks as a result of the water vapour in the air being condensed by the cooling effect of the Fuel in the Tank. Manufacturers provide Carburettor Cars with a means of heating the Carburettor to prevent the buildup of Carburettor Ice. Engines without Carburettor Heat are exposed to the possibility of rough running followed by Engine stoppage as in the following images.</p><p>[http://oldholden.com/?q=node/24069 Carburettor Ice Thread; Jammed Hot Spot Flap] </p><p>[http://www.karting1.co.uk/jetting-karting.htm Carburettor Ice in Karts] </p><p>[http://www.rjma.com/flight/airwaves/vol2-53.jpg Carburettor Ice Diagram] </p><p>[http://www.paragonair.com/public/docs/AdvCircs/AC00-06A_AvWx/_00-6A_Fig095_10.jpg Carburettor Ice Diagram] [http://www.casa.gov.au/fsa/2001/jul/28-31.pdf Carburettor Ice Information] </p><p>[http://gallery.oldholden.com/stock+EJ/bits/car+025.jpg.html Stock-EJ's Shed has Images of Grey Motor Manifolds]</p><p>===Carburettor Heat and the Hot Spot:=== </p><p>In Old Holdens, Carburettor Heat may be provided from a Flap Vane built into the Exhaust Manifold or a Coolant Source that allows hot Coolant to flow through the Inlet Manifold. Not only does this heat aid in Fuel Vapourisation, but it guards against Carburettor Ice. Carburettor Ice forms inside the carburettor of a running Engine when the humidity of the day is high, that is there is a lot of Water Vapour in the air. As the Fuel leaving the Main Jet is converted into Fuel Vapour, its temperature drops. The drop in temperature is sufficient to cause any incoming Water Vapour to form Ice Crystals over the Main Jet and Throttle Butterfly. Eventually the Ice buildup becomes so great that it will stop the Engine. You see Top Fuellers getting Alcohol sprayed on their intake Butterflies for the same reason. The Alcohol prevents Ice buildup. </p><p>===Carburettor Ice Duration:=== </p>Carburettor Ice doesn't stick around very long after the Engine has stopped. It's usually there just long enough to wreak havoc. Evidence of its presence will have to be collected rapidly because the Engine's heat will begin to make it melt and the absence of vapourising Fuel will remove its prime cause. It's for the above reasons that it has been such an evasive cause of Engine stoppage.&nbsp;&nbsp; <table border="0" align="center"><tbody><tr><td>&nbsp; <p>[[Image:Bedford1.jpg|thumb|173 Engine in a CF Bedford. The disconnected coolant connections on the Inlet Manifold caused gagging and carburettor ice. Photo by John Abbott.]]</p></td><td>&nbsp;[[Image:Bedford0.jpg|thumb|173 Engine in a CF Bedford. The disconnected coolant connections on the Inlet Manifold caused gagging and carburettor ice. Photo by John Abbott.]] </td><td>&nbsp;[[Image:100_0766.jpg|thumb|Note that the coolant connections are disconnected from the inlet manifold. Image by Tim. Click to Enlargen.]] </td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp; <p>[[Image:Trev_s_Old_Engine_09.jpg|thumb|Holden 161 Engine with Water Heated Inlet Manifold. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Trev PooBaa .]]&nbsp;&nbsp;</p></td><td>&nbsp;[[Image:TimMarkSherroB.jpg|thumb| Grey Motor showing the Hot Spot Flap Vane Balance weight under the carb and at the top of the Engine Pipe.&nbsp;Check to see that this is free to rotate when the engine is cold. Check to see that it moves from the cold to hot position after the Engine is up to temperature. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Sherro.]]&nbsp;&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp; <p>[[Image:P8170101S.JPG|thumb|Hot Spot Flap Vane Balance Weight on a 202 UC.&nbsp;&nbsp;It should be free to rotate when cold and should move from the cold to the hot position when the Engine has warmed up. Click to Enlargen. Photo by T.]]&nbsp;&nbsp;</p></td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;[[Image:Carby_0.preview.jpeg|thumb| Click to enlargen. Photo by Stock EJ.]] </td><td><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;&nbsp;[[Image:Car_020.jpg|thumb| Hot Spot on a 138 Grey Motor. Click to enlargen. Photo by Stock EJ.]] </p><p>&nbsp;</p></td><td><p>&nbsp;[[Image:Car_025.jpg|thumb| Hot Spot Flap Vane in the Hot Position on a 138 Grey Motor. Click to enlargen. Photo by Stock EJ.]]&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p></td></tr><tr><td>&nbsp;[[Image:DSC01018.JPG|thumb| Cutaway view of the Coolant Heating Jacket around the Inlet Manifold. Click to enlargen. Photo by Jacks.]] </td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr></tbody></table><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>===Fuel Injected Engines:=== </p><p>Fuel Injected Engines do not suffer from ice because the Fuel leaving the Injectors does not drop in temperature. Also, the fuel is introduced to the air downstream of the throttle butterfly in contrast to a carburettor where the fuel enters the air upstream of it. </p><p>===Carburettor Heat:=== </p><p>In Aviation, all Carburettor equipped aircraft have a control on the Cockpit Dashboard called Carburettor Heat. In the event of Carburettor Ice forming, the Pilot can activate this control and cause exhaust heated air to be forced down the Carburettor intake to blow any ice away. Carburettor Ice causes a number of Forced Landings in Aircraft every year sometimes because the symptoms of a dying Engine are recognised too late and sometimes because particular Engines are very unforgiving of Carburettor Ice and simply quit too rapidly for the Pilot to be able to take action. </p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[[Image:031220101628.jpg|thumb|186 Engine in HT Holden with Extractors and Coolant Heated Inlet Manifold. Photo by HT Holden Suzie. Click to Enlargen.]]</p><p>[[Image:031220101627.jpg|thumb|186 Engine in HT Holden with Extractors and Coolant Heated Inlet Manifold. Photo by HT Holden Suzie. Click to Enlargen.]]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>===Videos:===</p><p>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zMg6EWKZos&amp;feature=related Carburettor Ice] </p><p>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HvIERR60_Y YouTube Video ]</p><p>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZG_sdWuydU&amp;NR=1 VMax Carburettor Ice Part 1]</p><p>[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IBjZHl7HscA&amp;feature=related VMax Carburettor Ice Part 2] </p><p>===Links:===</p><p>[http://gallery.oldholden.com/HT+Holden+Ute/ HT Holden Suzie's Shed] </p><p>[http://images.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ultralightnews.ca/bing/images/sd_img_ch_ice.jpg&amp;imgrefurl=http://www.ultralightnews.ca/bing/carbheater.html&amp;h=320&amp;w=240&amp;sz=12&amp;hl=en&amp;start=9&amp;um=1&amp;tbnid=0OjF1oUp8fdg4M:&amp;tbnh=118&amp;tbnw=89&amp;prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcarburettor%2Bice%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Ultra Light News Image and Background.]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>[http://oldholden.com/node/45696 Thread 1]</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><a href="http://www.ultralightnews.com/">http://www.ultralightnews.com</a></p><p><a href="http://www.ultralightnews.ca/">http://www.ultralightnews.ca</a></p><p><a href="http://www.ultralightflyer.com/">http://www.ultralightflyer.com</a></p><p><a href="http://www.lightsportaircraft.ca/">http://www.lightsportaircraft.ca</a></p><p>===Terms:===[http://holdenpaedia.oldholden.com/Terms Terms]</p><p>[http://www.oldholden.com/possible/index.php/General_information#Fuel_Systems Back to Fuel System Index] </p><p>[[Category: Fuel System]] </p>

Revision as of 20:11, 3 October 2012

Original submission by T Mar 5 2006

Back to Fuel System Index

 

Carburettor Ice in a Rotax Engine. Photo by Dave Loveman of Ultralight News.

 

==What is Carburettor Ice?:==

Just as the Freezer section of a Refrigerator shows evidence of Water Vapour from the air freezing, Fuel Systems can suffer similarly.

 

After Carburettor Heat has been applied. Photo by Dave Loveman of Ultralight News.

 

Water droplets forming on the outside of a Grey Motor Carburettor caused by a failed Hot Spot. There can be just as much liquid condensing on the inside of the Carburettor. With the Fuel acting as a refrigerant ice is assured. Photo by Stock EJ.

Carburettor Ice in a Rotax Engine. 

Fuel Supply Icing on a BSA Motorcycle. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Jacks.

Water droplets appear in Fuel Tanks as a result of the water vapour in the air being condensed by the cooling effect of the Fuel in the Tank. Manufacturers provide Carburettor Cars with a means of heating the Carburettor to prevent the buildup of Carburettor Ice. Engines without Carburettor Heat are exposed to the possibility of rough running followed by Engine stoppage as in the following images.

Carburettor Ice Thread; Jammed Hot Spot Flap

Carburettor Ice in Karts

Carburettor Ice Diagram

Carburettor Ice Diagram Carburettor Ice Information

Stock-EJ's Shed has Images of Grey Motor Manifolds

===Carburettor Heat and the Hot Spot:===

In Old Holdens, Carburettor Heat may be provided from a Flap Vane built into the Exhaust Manifold or a Coolant Source that allows hot Coolant to flow through the Inlet Manifold. Not only does this heat aid in Fuel Vapourisation, but it guards against Carburettor Ice. Carburettor Ice forms inside the carburettor of a running Engine when the humidity of the day is high, that is there is a lot of Water Vapour in the air. As the Fuel leaving the Main Jet is converted into Fuel Vapour, its temperature drops. The drop in temperature is sufficient to cause any incoming Water Vapour to form Ice Crystals over the Main Jet and Throttle Butterfly. Eventually the Ice buildup becomes so great that it will stop the Engine. You see Top Fuellers getting Alcohol sprayed on their intake Butterflies for the same reason. The Alcohol prevents Ice buildup.

===Carburettor Ice Duration:===

Carburettor Ice doesn't stick around very long after the Engine has stopped. It's usually there just long enough to wreak havoc. Evidence of its presence will have to be collected rapidly because the Engine's heat will begin to make it melt and the absence of vapourising Fuel will remove its prime cause. It's for the above reasons that it has been such an evasive cause of Engine stoppage.  
 

173 Engine in a CF Bedford. The disconnected coolant connections on the Inlet Manifold caused gagging and carburettor ice. Photo by John Abbott.

 
173 Engine in a CF Bedford. The disconnected coolant connections on the Inlet Manifold caused gagging and carburettor ice. Photo by John Abbott.
 
Note that the coolant connections are disconnected from the inlet manifold. Image by Tim. Click to Enlargen.
 

Holden 161 Engine with Water Heated Inlet Manifold. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Trev PooBaa .
  

 
Grey Motor showing the Hot Spot Flap Vane Balance weight under the carb and at the top of the Engine Pipe. Check to see that this is free to rotate when the engine is cold. Check to see that it moves from the cold to hot position after the Engine is up to temperature. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Sherro.
  
 

Hot Spot Flap Vane Balance Weight on a 202 UC.  It should be free to rotate when cold and should move from the cold to the hot position when the Engine has warmed up. Click to Enlargen. Photo by T.
  

 
Click to enlargen. Photo by Stock EJ.

 

  

Hot Spot on a 138 Grey Motor. Click to enlargen. Photo by Stock EJ.

 

 

Hot Spot Flap Vane in the Hot Position on a 138 Grey Motor. Click to enlargen. Photo by Stock EJ.
 

 

 
Cutaway view of the Coolant Heating Jacket around the Inlet Manifold. Click to enlargen. Photo by Jacks.
  

 

 

===Fuel Injected Engines:===

Fuel Injected Engines do not suffer from ice because the Fuel leaving the Injectors does not drop in temperature. Also, the fuel is introduced to the air downstream of the throttle butterfly in contrast to a carburettor where the fuel enters the air upstream of it.

===Carburettor Heat:===

In Aviation, all Carburettor equipped aircraft have a control on the Cockpit Dashboard called Carburettor Heat. In the event of Carburettor Ice forming, the Pilot can activate this control and cause exhaust heated air to be forced down the Carburettor intake to blow any ice away. Carburettor Ice causes a number of Forced Landings in Aircraft every year sometimes because the symptoms of a dying Engine are recognised too late and sometimes because particular Engines are very unforgiving of Carburettor Ice and simply quit too rapidly for the Pilot to be able to take action.

 

186 Engine in HT Holden with Extractors and Coolant Heated Inlet Manifold. Photo by HT Holden Suzie. Click to Enlargen.

186 Engine in HT Holden with Extractors and Coolant Heated Inlet Manifold. Photo by HT Holden Suzie. Click to Enlargen.

 

===Videos:===

Carburettor Ice

YouTube Video

VMax Carburettor Ice Part 1

VMax Carburettor Ice Part 2

===Links:===

HT Holden Suzie's Shed

Ultra Light News Image and Background.

 

Thread 1

 

http://www.ultralightnews.com

http://www.ultralightnews.ca

http://www.ultralightflyer.com

http://www.lightsportaircraft.ca

===Terms:===Terms

Back to Fuel System Index