EFI VK 3.3

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Original submission by T:

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The EFI VK Commodore. Click to Enlargen.


VK EFI 3.3 Injection Background:

When many Fuel Injection experts are asked about the VK EFI 3.3 system they say ... "The beauty of the system is its simplicity." The Bosch LE2-Jetronic system as used on the EFI VK is the same system that was used on Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, BMW (Cars and Motorcycles) and Grand Prix Cars.

Front view of the Commodore Engine Bay. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Hot308VK

There is no Crank Angle Sensor. The EFI VK Computer gets all it's timing information from the Pulses at the Coil Negative Terminal of its High Energy Ignition System. The EFI VK Distributor uses Balance Weights and has a Vacuum Advance Module. The Balance Weights have only about half the amount of advance of WB, VC and VH 6 Cyl Commodores. The Vacuum Advance Module has reduced advance compared to the Distributors used in WB, VC and VH 6 Cyl Commodores. The Ignition Timing for the standard Distributor is 12 degrees BTDC on the Firing Stroke.  The Magnetic Pickup is the same unit as used on all WB, VC and VH 6 Cyl Commodores. The Ignition Module is the same unit as used on WB, VC, and VH 6 Cyl and V8's. Note the EST VK uses an ECU (Computer) to trigger the Coil. WB, VC, VH and EFI VK 6 Cylinder Engines all use the same Magnet and Pickup Coil as used WB, VC, and VH V8's, but the V8 Stators and Rotors have 8 points rather than 6. The Ignition Coil used is Bosch HEC-716. The same Coil is used on all WB, VC, VH, VK (EFI and EST)  6 Cyl and V8 Engines. The original Coil was Oil Filled. The HEC-716 Coil is called a C Core Coil and is more efficient. There is no O2 Sensor. The system operates by calculating the amount of Fuel necessary for each Injection Cycle from the Engine Temperature, the Throttle Position, the Ambent Air Temperature and the amount of Air flowing into the Engine. Cold Conditions mean that more Fuel will be injected during the Injection Cycle. Hot Conditions mean that less Fuel will be injected during the Injection Cycle. These engines were only ever sold coupled up to Trimatic Gearboxes. Since Trimatics don't have Lock-Up Torque-Converters there is no provision for controlling one. 

The board from a "Green Label" ECU, P/N: 92024124, Bosch P/N 0 280 001 305. The Power Transistor in the lower right corner fires the Injectors. Some EFI VK ECU's have 2 Power Transistors at this location. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Mark Berner.
The factory EFI VK ECU is an analogue device. It works by comparing calculated voltages against ignition pulses. Every 3rd ignition pulse it fires all 6 injectors for a time period equal to the calculated voltages. Electronic devices called Comparators perform the tasks. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Mark Berner.
The factory EFI VK ECU is an analogue device. No ROM or RAM. It's not a Von Neumann's Digital Computer with an Accumulater, Arithmetic Logic Unit, Programme Counter, Flag Register, etc like a VN or later Holdens. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Mark Berner.

Being simultaneous fire means that the circuitry is minimal. As a result manufacturing costs and troubleshooting times are reduced accordingly.

Spark Plug:

The Holden Commodore EFI VK 3.3 uses the Bosch HR7DCY+ Spark Plug.

Basic Operation:

The VK system (Bosch LE-2 Jetronic Injection) uses an Analogue Computer.

EFI VK Fuel Pump, mount and Dampers. Image by Phillip Gard. Click to Enlargen.

The injectors are wired in 2 banks of 3, 1-2-3 and 4-5-6 but all cylinders are fired simultaneously. This is known as Simultaneous Fire Injection The Analogue Computer calculates the amount of fuel required for one cylinder, then repicates that information across all Injectors. This is achieved by having the Injectors wired in banks of 3. Since there is no O2 Sensor there is no feedback monitoring so the unit runs in a continuous open loop using only temperature sensitive devices to tune itself. The amount of fuel injected into the Inlet Manifold is determined by the fuel pressure and the time that the Injectors are opened. The Computer monitors various sensors on the engine, draws a conclusion from that information and alters the time that the Injectors are opened to match those conditions.


The timing of the VK EFI 3.3 Injection System is done purely from the Coil Negative Terminal. The Distributor used is the same as VC, WB, VH 6 Cyl but the Distributor shaft has reduced movement for the Balance Weights. The Static Advance is set to 12 degrees. All ignition timing is done by the distributor. There is no Crank Angle Sensor. During normal running the ECU fires all the Injectors every 3rd Ignition Pulse (once every Engine Revolution) for a duration determined by the Computer. In the VK Commodores, only the 6 Cylinder EST version uses a Crank Angle Sensor.


For up to the first 10 seconds of Starter Cranking, the ECU fires the Injectors 3 times per Engine Revolution (every Ignition Pulse).

Flooded Start:

If the Engine doesn't start due to excess Fuel in the Inlet Manifold, pressing the Throttle hard to the Floor under Cranking signals the ECU to kill the Injectors. This gives the Engine a chance to pump the excess Fuel out of the Inlet Manifold and fire when the Mixture becomes appropriate.

After Start Phase:

During this phase the ECU fires the Injectors every 3rd ignition Pulse and enriches the mixture by a factor or 1.7 until the Engine Speed exceeds 600 RPM wherein the ECU enters the Warmup Phase.

Warmup Phase:

During this phase the Injectors fire every 3rd ignition Pulse and the mixture is enrichened  by a factor or 1.2 until the Engine Temperature exceeds 20 degrees.

EFI VK 3.3 Fuel Components:

The Fuel Pump:

The Fuel Pump is mounted above the diff. The tank is fitted with a swirl pot, so as to not let fuel pressure drop when cornering etc. The single pump provides Fuel under pressure to the Fuel Rail.

Numbers show the Fuel Regulator and the Throttle Position Switch. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Hot308VK.

The Bosch 0580 464 070 is the ideal pump. It is the replacement pump for VK, VL, VN and VP. 

Last 3 digits 050 is the OE Bosch pump sold to Holden for fitting on the production line. This was then supported with 0 580 464 051 as a replacement pump through the Holden dealer. Both these are now replaced with 0 580 464 070. This pump fits many cars world wide and used by more than a dozen manufacturers.. End of submissions by myeh.

Fuel Pump Replacement:

The Fuel Tank has to be drained before you can replace the Fuel Pump because the output is mounted low in the Fuel Tank. I found lowering the Tank Level to 1/8 Full and jacking the offside Rear Wheel by 10 cm caused the Fuel to drain away from the outlet sufficiently to allow replacement of the Pump without Fuel coming out. Make sure you can trust your Gauge before you take 1/8 Full as gospel. Also, the Fuel System must be depressurised before you can remove the Engine side connection of the Pump. Leaving the car turned off overnight will depressurise the system.

Equivalent Fuel Pumps As Per Bosch Chart:

 Part Number  Description
 0 580 464 008  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 008  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 013  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 014  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 015  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 016  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 019  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 020  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 050  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 051  Bosch  Fuel Pump
 0 580 464 070  Bosch  Fuel Pump

        Fuel Pump Specs: 130 - 195 Litres per Hour at 12 Volts Power Consumption < 6.5 Amps System Pressure 300kpa Pressure Limit 450 - 800 kpa Length 175 mm

Pin 1 is on the top right. The top row is numbered 1 - 13 from right to left. The bottom row is numbered 14 - 25 from right to left. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Daymo.
The EFI VK ECU is shown. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Daymo.
After removing the Aluminium Cover, then the Printed Circuit Board, the Pin numbering is shown on the Connector. Click to Enlargen. Photo by T.
The yellow arrow points to the Pin numbering on the Connector. Click to Enlargen. Photo by T.

Fuel Rail:

Photo by Hot308VK.

The Fuel Rail is bolted to the Inlet Manifold and directs fuel to the injectors. One end of the Fuel Rail is connected to the Fuel Supply Line and the other to the Fuel Regulator. It is normal for the Fuel Rail to ratttle to the touch when the Engine is running.


There are 2 dampers in the fuel supply line. One is mounted near the Fuel Pump, the other at the Fuel Rail. The Fuel Dampers contain spring loaded diaphgrams. The dampers keep the fuel pressure relatively constant by supplying the Fuel Line with fuel which has been stored in them under pressure by the spring loaded diaphragms.

The Durite Tachometric Relay as used in the EFI VK. The underside uses Surface Mount Components. Image by T. Click to Enlargen.

The Fuel Regulator:

To simplify monitoring of the engine's fuel requirements a Fuel Regulator is fitted to the engine. The Fuel Regulator is mounted at the highest point on the Fuel Rail to encourage any air towards it and away from the injectors. Air getting to the injectors will upset the engine's starting and running. The Fuel Regulator has 3 connections. Fuel Rail, Fuel Tank Return Line and the Inlet Manifold Connection The Fuel Regulator varies the Fuel Pressure in response to changes in the vacuum in the Inlet Manifold. This vacuum variation would otherwise affect the amount of fuel delivered by the injector, effectively sucking more fuel out of the nozzle when vacuum is high. When the engine is idling and vacuum is high the Fuel Regulator generates a low fuel pressure in the Fuel Rail by returning a large amount of Fuel to the Tank. When the engine is at mid throttle and vacuum is medium the Fuel Regulator generates a medium fuel pressure in the Fuel Rail by returning a medium amount of Fuel to the Tank. When the engine is at full power and vacuum is low the Fuel Regulator generates a high fuel pressure in the Fuel Rail by returning a small amount of Fuel to the Tank. The end result is a constant pressure drop across the injector. As the vacuum goes up and down the fuel rail pressure goes up and down by exactly the same amount. The EFI VK Fuel Regulator has Bosch Part numbers are 0 280 160 234 and 0 280 160 236.

Note that the Engine has the wrong Oil Filler Cap. This causes a high Idle Speed by letting too much air into the Positive Crankcase Ventilation. It should have the flat Cap shown in the other images. Image by Mark Berner. Click to Enlargen.


Original number is a 0 280 150 203, we discontinued these in 12/2007.
This injector was used in BMW 13641276149 ,Fiat 5968078 , Ford XFL 9F593A , Holden 92017806, Jaguar EAC 4962, Lancia 5968078.
The Ford application was XF 4.1litre. There is still stock of this injector available ex Bosch BUT by the time they get to the market they would be around $170each minimum. This makes them a bit hard to sell hence we don't carry them any more in Australia. The flow rate is 150grams/min and the impendance is 16ohms. This makes them functionally very simialr to a VN on V6 or V8 injector or for that matter an EA on Falcon injector. In a nutshell there is no supercession to a new number as they are still available. Bosch recommends that part number for the car.. Personally I would fit a 0 280 150 960 VP on injector to a stock motor. If it was modified slightly I would used 0 280 150 775 Group A/Magna 2.6 injector. Highly modified I would use a 0 280 155 868 Supercharged V6 Commodore injector. End of submission by myeh. The injectors have a resistance of 16 ohms. Further Injector info is listed in the Links section.

Fuel Tank:

The Fuel Tank has additional components compared to the carburettor cars. The Fuel Tank contains a "Swirl Pot" and connections for the Fuel Return Line. In order for the Fuel Regulator to work it has to be able to return Fuel to the Fuel tank. One end of the Fuel Return Line is connected to the output of the Regulator and the other end to the Swirl Pot inside the Fuel Tank. Shawn Goodwin's Shed

EFI VK Airflow Sensor. Image by Phillip Gard. Click to Enlargen.

Schraeder Valve:

This is located at the front of the Fuel Rail. It provides a Quick Disconnect dry break system for connecting a Fuel Pressure Gauge. It is available under Motorcraft part number CM3461. Quick Disconnect Adapters are available from Yellowjacket.

The Swirl Pot:

The Swirl Pot is mounted inside the Fuel Tank and performs these functions. 1. Return Fuel can be in the form of vapour. Passing the vapour through fuel reduces the build-up of vapour under pressure in the Fuel Tank while the engine is running. 2. The intake end of the Fuel Pickup tube is inserted into the Swirl Pot to minimise the chance that the Fuel Supply will become uncovered during acceleration or heavy cornering, at least until the Tank Level is lower than the Usable Fuel Level. The Usable Fuel Level is that level that can be relied upon to keep the engine supplied under cornering, climbing and descending hills.

EFI VK 3.3. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Shawn Goodwin.

The Fuel Filter:

Mounted at the rear of the car and close to the Fuel Pump is the high pressure Fuel Filter. In addition to the normal process of filtering the Fuel in any Internal Combustion Engine system against contaminants that have entered from the outside, the Fuel in a Fuel Injection system can suffer from a build-up of deposits of Fuel Dye. The Fuel Dye, which is used to identify the grade of the petrol, separates out whenever the Fuel is exposed to the heat of any metal components it comes in contact with such as the Fuel Rail, Regulator or Return Line. Since the fuel in this system is continuously pumped in a circuit, from the Tank to the Engine and back to the Engine, the separated Dye will be eventually pumped back to the Fuel Tank. To ensure the returned Dye does not completely choke the injectors a high pressure Fuel Filter is inserted in the Fuel Line between the Fuel Pump and the Fuel Rail.

The Airflow Sensor is in the Foreground. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Shawn Goodwin.

EFI VK 3.3 Electronic Components:

The EFI Computer:

The VK EFI 3.3 uses an Analogue Computer which monitors sensors on the engine.

ECU Power Transistor:

The ECU uses a BDX53C Darlington Power Transistor to drive the Injectors. These are available from RS Components. ON Semiconductor make an alternative which is ON 823.
BD649 is an equivalent Transistor available from Jaycar Electronics. The Transistor is held in place with an aluminium Rivet. The Rivet head can be cut off with Cutters. An M3 Bolt and 2 Locknuts can be used to install  the new Transistor. Make sure that Silicon Grease is installed on both sides of the Mica Washer as part of the replacement process.

Transistor Static Test:

The transistor has failed if any 2 or more of the legs produce a continuous beep from an Digital Meter set to the Diode Range. If so the Injectors will be turned permanently  on when the Tachometric Relay is activated. If it passes the Static Test, the transistor may sill fail in operation. Replacing it eliminates it as a variable. They only cost a couple of Dollars.

EFI VK ECU and 3.23 Differential:

The ECU changed in colour from green (pre 3.23) to red (3.23). Green = GMH 92024124 Bosch 0 280 001 305 106 kW
Red    = GMH 92017803 109 kW

Hi T Strangely the Bosch part no. remained unchanged (0280001305) but the GM-H part no. did change. The easy way to pick them is that the label changed from green to red. End of submission by Dr Terry.

By Dr Terry 08/04/11@10:08

Another example is the VK 3.3 EFI engine which is quoted having either 106 kW or 109 kW depending on which literature you are reading. There was a small change to the VK engine management module in late 1984 when the rear axle changed from 3.08 to 3.23 but a lot of the literature I have goes back to 1982 & 83 well before that. I quote both these output numbers in my book. End of submission by Dr Terry.

Tachometric Relay:

All electrical aspects of the system are controlled by a relay called the Tachometric Relay. This device turns on or off the current supplied to the Computer, Injectors, Sensors, Fuel Pump and Auxiliary Air Valve. The Relay is a safety device, added so that the Fuel Pump will not continue to deliver fuel into a fire inside the engine bay. The Relay is forced on when the Ignition Switch is turned to the Start position. Once engaged the relay activates the Computer, Injectors, Sensors, Fuel Pump and Auxiliary Air Valve while the engine cranks. The Relay monitors the Coil Negative Connection. If the engine starts normally a frequency sensitive circuit inside the Relay will hold the Relay engaged provided the Engine Idle speed is high enough. If the Engine fails to start or Idles too slowly, the Tachometric Relay will disengage and the Fuel Pump will stop. The same will happen if the Engine stops but the Ignition Switch is left on.

The EFI VK Tachometric Relay. Click to Enlargen. Photo by T.

The Durite 0-723-22 Relay is a replacment and is also used in Opel 1238566, 1238563, 1238566 GM 90124673, 90158189, 90158443, 90213542 Lucas FDB 501 The WEHRLE 51 223 909 Tachometric Relay is a direct replacement of the original Bosch Tachometric Relay. The Hella 4RP 008 189-041 Tachometric Relay is a direct replacement of the original Bosch Tachometric Relay.

Tachometric Relay Part Numbers:

New EFI VK Tachometric Relay. Part Number 0-723-22 available from The Tool Box Shop. See the Links Section for the Link. Photo by T. Click to enlargen.


Bosch 0 280 230 005
Bosch 0 280 230 016
Fiat 7717686
GM 1238542
GM 1238563
GM 1238566
GM 90213542
Lucas FDB1082
Lucas FDB501
Renault 77 00 715 675
VAG 305 906 059 1
Volvo 1326730
Volvo 285227
Volvo 3285227

  Bosch 0 280 230 005 Bosch 0 280 230 016

Also fits Volvo 340, 360 part numbers 3285227 and 285227. Fiat/Lancia part number 7717686. Renault Feugo Turbo part numbers 7700708960 or 7700715675. I hope this helps End of submission by myeh

Electronic Sensors:

Many of the sensors are Resistors whose resistance is changed by environmental variables such as temperature and air pressure. All the Electronic Sensors on the VK EFI 3.3 System have a Negative Temperature Co-Efficient which means their resistance becomes lower with the increase in temperature or air pressure they are monitoring.

Coolant Temperature Sensor:

This is mounted towards the front of the engine on the Manifold side. This device generates a Resistance related to the Coolant Temperature which the Computer responds to. The higher the Temperature the lower the Resistance and the shorter the duration that the injectors will be opened for. By myeh 26/05/10@18:34 Shed LetsCruise 2560 The coolant temp sensor you need is Bosch 0 280 130 026. End of submission by myeh This sensor is used in VK (EST 6 Cyl and EFI 6 Cyl) , VN (6 and V8) , VP (6 and V8), VQ (6 and V8), VR (6 and V8), VS (6 and V8) Holdens .

Coolant Temperature Sensor Replacment:

Removing the Coolant Temperature Sensor can be difficult if it has been in the Engine for Years. There will be contaminant on the Threads which may cause the Sensor to bind during removal.  The easiest way to do the removal/replacement  is with a 19mm double depth Socket, but  the old one can be removed with a normal 19mm Socket after breaking the Plastic Section of the Sensor off with Cutters.  A normal depth 19mm Socket will then fit with ease and removing the Sensor will be straightforward. Refitting the new one can be done with a  cut down 19 mm Ring Spanner.  

Throttle Position Switch:

This device contains 2 internal switches. One is closed (shut) when the Throttle is at the Idle position. The other switch is closed when the throttle is at 2/3 open. Both switches are in the open position when the Throttle is anywhere between Idle and 2/3rds. The computer uses the position of the switches inside the Throttle Position Switch to make the mixture richer at Idle and Full Throttle than it will be when the Throttle is mid-range. The Full Throttle switch is also interpreted by the Computer during cranking as WOT (Wide Open Throttle). WOT is used during cranking to clear a flooded engine. The computer will significantly reduce the output of the injectors under WOT to allow the engine to fire.

EFI VK 3.3 Air Components:

Air Flow Meter (AFM):

An Air Flow Meter is mounted behind the Air Filter. The Air Flow Meter measures the amount of air being drawn into the engine instant by instant and supplies that information to the computer in the form of a resistance. It does this by a spring loaded Vane that deflects as the air moves over it. The more air that moves through the Air Flow Meter, the more the Vane deflects and the greater the change in Resistance that is sent to the computer. The Air Flow Meter also tells the Computer the temperature of the incoming air in the form of a Resistance. It does this by the Intake Air Temperature sensor which sits in the airflow. The resistance of this device changes with temperature.

Auxiliary Air Valve:

Connected in parallel with the Throttle Body is the Auxiliary Air Valve. This device has a thermally sensitive device in it which controls its opening and closing. During a cold start the device is initially cold which causes it to be wide open. This allows air to by pass the Throttle Valve and makes the Engine's Idle speed higher. An electric heater element inside the unit causes the valve to fully open by the time the Engine has warmed up. This drops the Idle speed back to the static setting defined by the Idle screw on top of the Throttle Body.

Idle Load Compensator Valve:

Mounted inside the Throttle Body is a solenoid activated valve. This valve is activated when the Air-Conditioning Clutch is engaged. The valve increases the idle speed of the engine to compensate for the load placed on it by the Air-Conditioning Compressor.

Tuning Adjustments:

The Idle speed is adjusted by a screw mounted on top of the Throttle Body. The screw is held in place by a locknut. Loosen the locknut and set the Idle Speed to 800 RPM +- 50 RPM with the Gear Lever in Park. The Idle speed is altered by rotating the Screw clockwise to slow the Idle Speed and anti-clockwise to increase the Idle Speed. The Idle Speed is increased by allowing more air to bypass the Throttle Butterfly. The Idle Speed is decreased by allowing less air to bypass the Throttle Butterfly.

EFI VK Air Flow Meter (AFM) Mixture Adjustment. The toothed wheel controls the spring tension of the flap. Reducing the tension richens the mixture. Rotate the toothed wheel anti-lockwise to richen the mixture. Be aware that the Screw that retains the Spring Clip can sheer off so it might be best not to loosen it. Click to Enlargen. Photo and info by Mark Berner
EFI VK Air Flow Meter (AFM) Mixture Adjustment. The toothed wheel controls the spring tension of the flap. Increasing the tension weakens the mixture. Rotate the toothed wheel clockwise to weaken the mixture. Click to Enlargen. Photo and info by Mark Berner
EFI VK Air Flow Meter (AFM) Mixture Adjustment. "The mixture was too lean, so I needed to turn the wheel inside the Air Flow Meter 1/4 of a turn anti-clockwise". Click to Enlargen. Photo and info by Mark Berner

Main Mixture Adjustments

This is mounted in the Air Flow Meter under a removable plastic cover. The adjustments are labelled.

Idle Mixture Adjustments

This an Allen screw mounted in the Air Flow Meter. Screwed all the way down, the Idle mixture is fully rich. Screwed midway, the Idle mixture is midway rich. Screwed all the way up, the Idle mixture is fully lean. A CO device is the best way to adjust it.

Emission Controls:

The system has an EGR Valve, Fuel Vapour Canister and on some models a thermally controlled vacuum advance valve.

EGR Valve:

When the vacuum above the Throttle Valve reaches a pre-determined level the EGR Valve opens and permits exhaust gas to be blown into the inlet manifold. The recycled exhaust gas lowers the combustion temperature and reduces pre-ignition and detonation.

EGR Pipe:

EGR Pipe

Fuel Vapour Canister:

Fuel vapour from the fuel tank is directed to a canister filled with charcoal known as the Vapour Canister. A purge line is connected between the top of the Canister and a point above the Throttle Valve inside the Throttle Body. When the Throttle Valve is opened wide enough, vapour from the Canister is drawn into the inlet manifold and burned.

Thermal Vacuum Advance Valve (Block):

This Valve provides vacuum to the Distributor when the Engine Block temperature is above 41 deg C. It's mounted in the block dipstick hole. The valve prevents vacuum advance from reaching the Distributor until the Engine Block temperature has reached 41 deg C.

Thermal Vacuum Advance Valve (Snorkel):

This Valve provides vacuum to the Distributor when the ambient air temperature is above 15 deg C.

Positive Crankcase Ventilation:

The VK EFI 3.3 Engine uses closed type Positive Crankcase Ventilation. For this reason any air-leak in the tin ware will appear as an air leak in the Inlet Manifold.

Electrical Requirements:

Since the system uses both sensitive electronic devices and a set of Injectors that are ideal devices for generating electrical spikes, it is imperative that good electrics be used. Though the system has strong tolerance for slow variance in the supply voltage and all the associated electronics' leads are shielded, using a high capacity battery with a high capacity alternator, clean and greased battery leads with supply cables in good condition is good insurance against difficulties. There are a massive number of problems that can be created in a system like this if a small battery, inadequate alternator, corroded battery terminals and inadequate leads are used. Better to bite the bullet and keep all these in fine conditions than run all round town trying to find out why the car isn't running as it should. Electronic systems thrive on power supplies that hold their outputs steady. The internal tolerance for voltage fluctuations can only go so far and it's better to prevent than cure so any potential for a blown Computer through poor battery terminals is better fixed up front. Keeping all the electrical connections in good condition is also advised. Items such as the battery earths should be kept clean and tight.


A battery of 520 CCA or higher will ensure the system will get the voltage it needs across a range of circumstances.


An 85 Amp or higher alternator will be able to manage the operational transients of the system and keep the battery charged at the same time. A Red Motor Alternator Bracket can be used to mount the Alternator without complications.

EFI VK 3.3 Engine Differences:

Submitted by Arsewipe on Sun, 10/06/2007 - 20:10.  That document (page 299) also states, that the valves also have a different shape to them, and, have an 'S' on the valve head, this lead me to believe that the heads were different, but if you look closely, the diagram states that the differences are between the 'VH' and the 'VK', not from carby to EFI,, The confusion is that these differences are stated in the EFI section of the book, as far as I can see, the only difference in the head between the EFI and Carby, is the valves, We really need to see if there is differnt part numbers betweeen the EFI head and the carby typr to confirm,, Now if the valves have an 'S' on the heads, then that means that the stems are SODIUM filled for cooling, and need to be handled VERY carefully, and disposed of in a safe manner,, the cam is roughly a 35/75 spec, (cam timing is retarded to reduce lope, and NOx emmisions) the timing case is the differing factor in the increased oil flow with a longer oil redirection rib, revised pistons, head gasket material, timing gear tooth design, and improved material for the steel crank gear,,,, :) Cheers john Silence is Non Committal End of submission by John (Arsewipe).   Mark Berner 's Shed showing EFI VK head rework

Exhaust System:

The shown pic is of a 202 EFI setup black motor in a HZ, showing the difference in the header arrangement. The other attachment I have provided is a standard set of 202 headers (Lukey brand) for a 202 non EFI setup

Difference is the pipe for #6 exhaust feeds under #5 for EFI to allow clearance for the inlet manifold for the EFI setup. The black pair of Lukey's (and another couple of sets I have) don't fit as the #6 exhaust pipe sits too high to allow refitment of the inlet manifold for the EFI system. End of submission by HJPaul.

The shown pic is of a 3.3 EFI VK showing the header arrangement to allow clearnace for the EFI Inlet Manifold. Photo by HJPaul. Click to enlargen.
This photo shows a standard set of 3.3 headers (Lukey brand) for a 3.3 non EFI setup. Difference is the pipe for #6 exhaust feeds under #5 for EFI to allow clearance for the inlet manifold for the EFI setup. The black pair of Lukey's (and another couple of sets I have) don't fit as the #6 exhaust pipe sits too high to allow refitment of the inlet manifold for the EFI system. Photo by HJPaul. Click to enlargen.

Metric Timing Gears:

Submission bty HQJeff. Metric Pitch Timing Gears were introduced on 6 Cyl VK (black Engines). End of submission by HQJeff.


  Engine Oil Filter  
  Air Filter   Fuel Filter 
Ryco Z30 Ryco A344 Ryco Z168 Ryco RTK7



Hard Starting - Kickback Starts:

Leaking Injectors. Can be caused by a loose Pintle Cover. The delivery Hole becomes misaligned and interferes with the Pintle's operation.

Injector Drop Test:

Unplugging each Injector Lead one at a time can tell you which Cylinders are producing power and which are dead or not making power.

Injector Drop Test

Erratic Running:

The Stator to Reluctor clearance has collapsed. The Distributor Balance Weights are worn out.

The Engine Cuts Out When Hot:

The HEI Ignition Module is failing due to lack of Silicon Grease. See Bosch HEI.

Fuel Pump:

The Fuel Pump must begin turning when the Engine cranks. To confirm, remove the purple activation wire from the Starter Solenoid. This will prevent the Starter Motor cranking and make it easier to determine if the Fuel Pump starts when the Ignition Key is rolled to the Start position. If confirming that the Fuel Pump is operating by removing the Regulator Return Line and activating the Start position, use *caution* that the test you make is very brief, and in any case just long enough to see Fuel emerge because copious amounts of fuel will be forced from the return line under this test. Take precautions so that any risk of fire is minimised.

The Fuel Pump Must Hold Pressure After Shutdown:

Inside the Fuel Pump there is a Valva that prevents Fuel from flowing back into the Pump when the Pump is turned off. If this Valve leaks, hard starting will occur, especially hot starts. This Valve can be checked by squeezing the output Hose anywhere between the Pump and the Fuel Rail. The Hose must stay hard for about 1 hour after shutdown. Use Hose Clamps to isolate the Fuel Rail from the Pump to prove the Valve is faulty. There is a 2nd Valve inside the Fuel Pump that prevents the Pump Pressure from becoming excessive. This Valve blows at around 80 PSI and can be heard to pop if the Regulator Return Line is pinched closed while the Pump is turning.

Tachometric Relay:

There should be a click inside the Relay. If the Relay doesn't click none of the system's electronic or electrical devices will receive power. Remove the purple Wire from the Starter Solenoid so the Engine can't crank, then turn the Ignition Switch to Start. The Tachometric Relay must click. It must click off when the Key is released to the off position.

Fuel Pump Fuse:

This must be intact or the Fuel Pump won't start. If a replacement Fuse blows then troubleshoot the Fuel Pump and the cabling to it.

Injector Pulse Tester:

By connecting a 2 watt globe across one injector, you can tell if the Injectors are being pulsed under cranking.
Image by Jacks.

EFI VK Vacuum:

Because the Ram-Air intake is below the bumper on these cars the airfilter picks up lots of dust. Should the vehicle throw water into the ram-air intake the dust in the filter is converted to mud and sucked into the engine. This mud layers the throttle valve and can make its way all the way down the Modulator's vacuum line, blocking it up solid. A replacement vacuum pipe can be the only fix for this.

New Fuel Pump:

From empty a new Fuel Pump will self prime, but you should only activate the pump for a few seconds at a time. Wait a few minutes between activations to allow the pump to cool down. EFI Fuel Pumps are dependent on Fuel flow to cool them.

Temperature Sensor:

A working Temperature Sensor shows these resistance at the stated temperatures. 10 deg C 8.26K - 10.56k Ohms 20 deg C 2.28K - 2.72k Ohms 80 deg C 0.290K - 0.72k Ohms

The Engine Fires Then Stops:

Possibly a faulty Tachometric Relay, the Relay has lost it's connection to the Coil Negative.

The Engine Cranks But Won't Start I:

The Injection System is dependent on the Ignition for its timing. If there is no spark there is likely to be no injection. Troubleshooting the Ignition system is a must. The Fuel Pump must start under cranking as well.

The Engine Cranks But Won't Start II:

The Starter Connection may be disconnected from the ECU. Check for connectivity. 

Note the Regulator Return Line at the Front of the Engine and in front of the Distributor. Disconnecting this can demonstrate a Fuel Pump failure. Image by Mark Berner. Click to Enlargen.

Cold Start Problem:

This will occur if the Fuel Tank has been topped right to the Brim. The Regulator Return Line will develop a brief Hydraulic Lock during Cranking and prevent the Fuel Rail from purging the Air from it until the Return Line has been blown clear. The Problem does not appear during Hot Starts because the Regulator continuously blows the Fuel back into the Tank.

Erratic Hot Running:

THis can be caused by an overfilled Fuel Tank that has flooded the Vapour Separator (under the Bonnet). At wide Throttle settings the Canister over flow is purged  into the Throttle Body causing rough running until the Canister has cleared.

Fuel Pump Failure Occurrence:

Submitted by T on Fri, 16/02/2007 - 11:31. 202 | Engine | HZ | Service

I took the HZ for a cruise today and, on exiting a roundabout the Engine ran out of noise. The Engine would crank but not fire.
Note the Rocker Cover is red, but the engine itself is black. Image by Nick Willis. Click to Enlargen.

With the purple activation wire on the Starter removed I cycled the Ignition Switch to the Start position but could not hear the Fuel Pump run. Lots of traffic accelerating away from the roundabout didn't help.

Note the Rocker Cover is red, but the engine itself is black. Image by Nick Willis. Click to Enlargen.

A kindly passerby declared that he heard a click under the bonnet and pointed to the area of the Tachometric Relay whenever the key entered the Start position.

Air Injection holes blanked off by grub screws on a factory EFI head. Image by 265Grunt. Click to Enlargen.

I wished I'd had the time to fit a Fuel Pump Warning Light.

EFI VK Coolant Temperature Sensor, Tachometric Relay and Injector. Image by Phillip Gard. Click to Enlargen.

After removing the aftermarket VK Fuse Box cover, the inline Fuel Pump Fuse was found intact and metered OK. Disconnecting the return line from the Regulator let me see what the noise of the traffic denied me and a test after replacing the Tachometric Relay didn't show any Pump action either.

EFI VK Auxiliary Air Valve. Image by Phillip Gard. Click to Enlargen.

Though I always carry an EFI spareskit with me, my actual tool box that normally lives in the HZ was back home in the shed meaning that I only had a test screwdriver, but a passing motorist loaned me a pair of pliers. I thought better of asking him for some strippers in case he was under cover vice. After stripping the Fuel Pump Fuse wire and briefly connecting it to a +12 volt source, Fuel streamed out of the Return Line which showed evidence of a good Fuel Pump, Filter and sufficient Fuel in the tank to supply a steady head. After reconnecting the Return Line I hardwired the +12 volt line to the Fuel Pump Fuse Wire on the Relay side so that I still had Fuse protection and drove home without incident. Back in the shed, a closer inspection revealed failure of a Blade Type Fuse Holder used as a Fuseable Link. It failed even though the Fuse, Holder and Wire were rated for more than double the Workload. I'll be replacing it with an inline type Fuse Holder because these make pressure contact with the Fuse. T

EFI VK Throttle Body. Note the Throttle Position Switch (Black) and the Idle Load Compensator Valve under it. Image by Phillip Gard. Click to Enlargen.

Don't Reverse Connections on Fuel Pump:

A valuable post from Campbell.    campbell on Wed, 27/02/2008 - 16:10.

G'day mate,
I never ended up getting back to that post about reversing the polarity of the EFI fuel pump.
By the time I got around to it I couldn't easily find the thread. So I just thought, "oh well".
Anyway the pump I had up the workshop, while still Bosch made, was not the same as the standard VK one. But it was Bosch, and was diode protected. And didn't do a thing when connected in reverse.
So I ASSUME the standard Holden EFI pumps would be the same.
But I will let you know when I know 100% what the go is.

Fuel Regulator Check:

Pinch the Fuel Regulator return line shut at idle and the RPM should increase.

Air Flow Meter:

If the "wiper" in the Air Flow Meter gets dirt and grime under it good contact will be lost. Consequently the Engine can run erratically which will include a symptom that looks like a dead cylinder when the Engine is Idling.

Fuel Filter:

The High Pressure Fuel Filter can block up completely and prevent the Fuel Supply from reaching the Fuel Rail.

PCV System:

Any leaks in the Tin-Ware will appear as air leaks in the Inlet Manifold. A fully sealing Oil Filler Cap must be used. Installing the Oil Filler Cap from an EH will invoke an air leak that results in a high Idle Speed. All Tin-Ware leaks such as ... The Rocker Cover The Oil Filler The PCV Grommets in the top of the Rocker Cover The Side Covers should be investigated and repaired. Flat spots on acceleration and Oil Leaks will appear if vacuum is being lost. The system has tolerance for air leaks from the following but they can become relevant in extreme cicumstances. The Dipstick The Base of the Distributor The Front Oil Seal The Rear Oil Seal

The Engine Cuts Out Intermittently:

Can be caused by a shorted Battery Cell. Can be caused by loss of power to the Fuel Pump.

Engine Does Not Run Properly Until Warmed Up:

Auxiliary Air Valve Submitted by T on Sun, 03/06/2007 - 07:30. The first thing I'd check would be that the auxiliary air valve is open before a cold start and closes after a few minutes of running. The aux air valve bypasses the throttle when the engine is cold and causes the engine to have a high idle speed after a cold start. Inside the aux air valve is an electrically heated rotational valve. When the valve is heated the valve rotates and closes reducing the amount of air that bypasses the throttle. Make sure the electrical connection to the aux air is intact and that the unit is open when cold and closes up when heated (after some minutes of having continuous power applied to it). End of submission by T Can also be blocked Injectors or blocked Fuel Filter or worn out Fuel Pump or any combination of these faults.

Pressure Sensitive Injector:

A faulty Injector can become Pressure Sensitive meaning that it may not work when the Fuel Pressure increases (like when the Throtttle is opened from Idle). A simple Pressure Test for Injectors can be performed by removing the Rubber Vacuum Hose from the Regulator and plugging it with a Phillips Head Screwdriver. This will force the the Regulator to hold 45 psi and work the Injectors at their maximum Pressure.

Air Leaks:

Air Leaks can appear around the Injectors if the rubber Seals become old and cracked or if the Injector Clips were installed correctly.

EFI VK 3.3 Tips:

Clean Out the Fuel Tank:

Clean out the fuel tank as part of a new installation.

Fuel Pump:

The pump works fine on its own and the original EFI VK 3.3 car was not sold with a booster pump. The EFI fuel pump can grumble when it wears out, and dust and dirt will do that fast. A grumbling pump may result if it is full of contaminant, cavitation or the bearings and brushes are worn out. Avoid running the car out of Fuel. The Fuel Pump is dependent on Fuel flowing through it to cool its internal parts.

Injector Rail and Fuel Regulator. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Phillip Gard


Fuel Tank Operating Level:

It's important that any fuel tank be kept full to prevent the manufacture of water in there. Fuel tanks generate water in the same way the refrigerator does. Warm moist air enters the tank as the level goes down. The chilled moisture forms droplets which combine on the bottom of the tank to form significant amounts.  

Inlet Manifold. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Phillip Gard

Fuel Injection and Water:

Fuel Injection can have the precious metals inside the Injectors ruined by water.

Fuel Dampener. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Phillip Gard

Fuel Filter:

The use of an inline EFI fuel filter is vital because any time fuel runs over hot metal the fuel dye crystalizes. Those crystals get pumped back to the tank and can block up and destroy the system unless they are filtered out.

Bends in the Fuel Lines:

Note that there should be no right angle bends in your fuel lines or vaporisation will result and that can make the fuel pump sing. All bends should be gentle and round so that the fuel can flow through them easily.

Rear view of EFI components with numbered items. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Phillip Gard

Water Leaks:

It's not uncommon for the location of the Computer to be exposed to water leaks. Being aware of this problem can avoid a disaster. Any sign of water entry from a windscreen leak or otherwise should be investigated and cured.

ECU. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Phillip Gard

Air Injection Grub Screws:

Submitted by lovemyholden on Sun, 10/06/2007 - 08:41.  By the way those grub screws are 5/8 UNF x 3/4 inch. I just got some the other day. Thought you might like to record that somewhere. Cheers LMH  End of submission by LMH

Top view of the Commodore Engine Bay. Click to Enlargen.

Fuel Pump Warning Indicator Lamp:

In much the same way that the Charge Indicator Lamp works for the Alternator (it goes out when +12 volts are presented to both sides of it) an indicator light can be fitted to monitor the Fuel Pump operation. This light was standard equipment on LED Display Calais VK's but is not present on many models. A 0.5 - 1 Watt 12V light bulb is connected between the Fuel Pump +ve terminal and a source of +12 Volts that comes on with the ignition. FPIndONOFF.gif The Fuel Pump armature behaves as a virtual earth and the light bulb grounds through it. The light bulb's current is too small to affect the pump but the pump is able to provide a ground for the bulb when it is turned off. This lamp has a screw removable bezel that allows the bulb to be replaced quickly and easily from the front without having to take the dashboard apart. Useful if the bulb fails the ignition on lamp test phase. P8100 Lamp The normal operation of the light is ... It comes on when the ignition switch is first turned to the on position (The bulb is grounding through the Fuel Pump's Armature). It goes out when the Engine is cranked (The Armature has 14V applied to it from the Relay). It stays out when the Engine is running (14V is being provided to it by the Relay). If for any reason the Fuel Pump loses power (the Tachometric Relay has opened, the Fuel Pump fuse has blown) the light comes on advising that no fuel is being pumped to the Engine. The light will also come on after cranking if the Tachometric Relay has lost Coil Pulses either because there is no connection to the Coil or because the HEI module or the Magnetic Pickup inside the Distributor has failed.

EFI VK Electronic Fuel Injection Components. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Dusted vk

Throttle Stop:

By T 17/03/11@10:23 Shed Financial Helper *new Another thing to check is the Throttle Stop. Ex-factory these have a green plastic cover to prevent them being tampered with. Some have the green cover removed. A problem appears with them that the Throttle Butterfly digs into the Throttle Body. I adjust these until the Butterfly is clearing the Throttle Body. If this adjustment isn't made the Butterfly sticks and can screw up the operation of the TPS. Once a groove is worn the original factory setting becomes meaningless because an extra air path has been generated through the Groove made by the Butterfly.

Throttle Stop Adjustment:

To make the adjustment, loosen the TPS Screws and rotate the TPS fully anticlockwise. Tighten the Screws with the TPS in this position. Adjust the Throttle stop so that is closes as far as possible without the Butterfly touching the Throttle Body. It may only take a 1/2 to 1 turn to achieve this. Once done, reset the TPS so that it clicks when the Throttle is closed and clicks again when the Throttle is opened. Then reset the Idle Speed using the Stud and Nut on the top of the Throttle Body to 850 +/- 50 in Neutral or Park.

Injector Clip fitment. Make sure the Grooves in each Clip fit on each side of the Fuel Rail Lip. Make sure the Clip is fit to the upper Groove of the Injector. Photo by Mark Berner. Click to Enlargen.
The Schraeder Valve is visible at the end of the Fuel Rail, alongside the Regulator. The yellow rectangle shows the Idle Load Compensator Valve. Photo by Mark Berner. Click to Enlargen.

Activating the EST Light to Work as an EFI Fuel Pump Warning Light:

The Bulb and Bulb Holder are already in place on EFI VK Berlinas and the Bulb is wired to the Ignition Pink Wire. The Sense Side (which goes to the EST ECU) needs to be cut and connected to the Purple Fuel Pump Wire at the Driver's Kick Panel. That's all that's needed to be done to get the EFI Fuel Pump Warning Light working.  

3.3 EFI VK No 6 Piston Crown. Photo by VKanaSVZ. Click to Enlargen.

3.3 EFI VK Block. Photo by VKanaSVZ. Click to Enlargen.
3.3 EFI VK Head. Photo by VKanaSVZ. Click to Enlargen.
3.3 EFI VK Engine. Grub Screws in the Exhaust Ports make the head suitable for use on both EST VK and EFI VK's. Air Injection Pipes screw into the Grub Scew Holes on the EST VK. Photo by VKanaSVZ. Click to Enlargen.
3.3 EFI VK Engine. Note the 3rd Head Bolt from the Rear on the Manifold side has a Stud and Nut which is used for mounting the Inlet Manifold Support Bracket. Photo by VKanaSVZ. Click to Enlargen.
3.3 EFI VK Engine. The Coolant Temperature Sender can be seen directly above the front Manifold Stud. Photo by VKanaSVZ. Click to Enlargen.
3.3 EFI VK Wiring Diagram.  Photo by Clever Trousers. Click to Enlargen.
3.3 EFI VK Cylinder Head.  S on the Valve Faces indicates they are Sodium filled. Photo by Faust Fuhrer. Click to Enlargen.
EFI VK 3.3 Rocker Cover. Note the additional mounting Hole for the Throttle Cable. Click to Enlargen. Image by Mark Berner. 
EFI VK Inlet Manifold, Fuel Rail, Injectors, etc. Click to Enlargen. Image by HRPanelvan. 
EFI VK Wiring Diagram. Click to Enlargen. Image  by Campbell. 
EFI VK ECU Pinout. Note the Pinout for the Plug is shown, not the ECU Socket. Click to Enlargen. Image  by Campbell. 
The Engine Temperature Sender for the ECU is mounted at the front of the Engine on the nearside. You can see the blue connector on in the centre of the image. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Campbell. 
The Image shows the Throttle Body and the Throttle Position Switch (the black one) the Idle Compensator Solenoid (silver item with wire connection next to it). Click to Enlargen. Photo by Campbell. 
The Dash Gauge Temperature Sender is mounted at the rear of the Engine on the offside. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Phillip Gard. 
EFI VK Inlet Manifold. Photo by Greytusk. Click to Enlargen.
EFI VK Inlet Manifold. Photo by Greytusk. Click to Enlargen.
EFI VK Inlet Manifold. Photo by Greytusk. Click to Enlargen.
The right hand Bolt Hole must be grounded for the ECU to work reliably. Photo by. Click to Enlargen.
EFI VK Electronic Control Unit. The brown Wire mentioned in the image is connected to the Battery -ve. Photo by HZTonner308. Click to Enlargen.
The lower right hand Bolt Hole must be grounded for the ECU to work reliably. Photo by. Click to Enlargen.
EFI VK 3.3 Head. Note, no ports have been drilled for Air Injection.  Photo by Stuntman Mike. Click to Enlargen.


EFI VK 3.3 Camshaft:


You'll find that the factory VK EFI camshaft for the 3.3 black motor is stamped GM7

End of submission by Slayer208.

EFI VK Bosch Part Numbers:


 Injector  0 280 150 203
 Fuel Pump  0 580 464 008
 Fuel Pump  0 580 464 070
 Air Flow Meter  0 280 202 052
 Fuel Pressure Regulator  0 280 160 234
 Fuel Pressure Regulator  0 280 160 236
 ECU  0 280 001 305
 Fuel Filter  F5030
 Coolant Temperature Sensor  0 280 130 026
 Auxiliary Air Valve  0 280 140 143
 Throttle Position Switch  0 280 120 307
 Fuel Pressure Damper  0 280 161 006
 Tachometric Relay  0 280 230 005


Fuel Injector from a 3.3 EFI VK. A good one will measure close to 15.8 Ohms. Photo by T. Click to Enlargen.



Fuel Injector from a 3.3 EFI VK. A good one will click precisely every time the Pintel is pushed with the Thumbnail. Photo by T. Click to Enlargen.

Fuel Injector from a 3.3 EFI VK. A bad one will not click precisely every time the Pintel is pushed with the Thumbnail.  Photo by T. Click to Enlargen.
Fuel Injector from a 3.3 EFI VK. A bad one will rattle continuously when shaken. A good one has no long term rattle. Photo by T. Click to Enlargen.
These Fuel Hose Clamps are very useful when replacing Fuel Components such as the Fuel Pump. They clamp the Line and stop Fuel flowing out during the replacement process. Depressurise the System first. Photo by T. Click to Enlargen.
Fuel Pump Blanking Plate on an EFI VK 3.3 Holden Engine. Click to Enlargen. Photo by Daniel Tigges.
Cam from an EFI VK 3.3 Engine showing the GM7 identification. Click to Enlargen. Photo by LEFTS.
Cold Start TVS (yellow device) as fitted to NSW EFI VK's. Click to Enlargen. Photo by HJPaul.
GM7 Cam from an EFI VK 3.3 Engine Engine showing the un-needed mechanical Fuel Pump cam lobe. Click to Enlargen. Photo by LEFTS.


The Fuel Pump Blanking Plate was standard issue for some EFI VK Blocks. Click to Enlargen. Image by SamWB.



The extractors converge into a 2" exhaust pipe held by a horseshoe clamp..

Wiring Diagrams:

Campbell's Shed

EGR Pipe:

Available from Pipewerxexhaustonline at EBay.


EJ Jake's Thread

Pipewexexhaustonline EGR Pipe

EGR Pipe

Leaking Fuel Injectors

Effect of Fuel Pressure on atomisation

Fuel Pump Warning Light

French PDF With Excellent Diagrams

By Using Aerosol Spray Confirms The Ignition Is OK

Fuel Pump Test

ECU Repaired

Meter testing the Power Transistor BDX53C

Injectors Are Receiving Power Under Cranking

The ECU Is Firing The Injectors

The ECU Is Not Firing The Injectors

HJPauls' EFI VK Conversion, 1st Start

AFM Cover Removal

AFM Mixture Adjustment

ATM Rebuild

Tachometric Relay

Phillip Gard's Shed

Nick Willis' Shed

High Idle Speed

Von Neumann

HJ_UTE's Shed

EFI VK Circuit Diagram, Campbell's Shed

Tachometric Relay Suppliers; www.thetoolboxshop.com

VK Workshop Manual

Campbell's Shed

Mark Berner's Shed

Injector Compatibility Info

Tachometric Relay Thread

Activating a Fuel Pump Warning Light on an EFI VK Berlina  

Tachometric Relay Internal Circuit and Connections

Tachometric Relay Source Link

EFI VK 3.3 Parts Source RAE

Troubleshooting Info

HJPaul EFI VK Headers Thread

Air Injection Grub Screws Info



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